Structure of matter
Quarks & Co.
Previous physics has always assumed that matter is composed of ever smaller masses. At the beginning, the molecules were discovered, then the atoms, until one noticed with protons, neutrons and electrons that the atoms are not indivisible either, as the name actually suggests (atom comes from ancient Greek and means indivisible unit). However, quantum theory tells us that the basis of basic physical quantities such as mass are natural numbers and not, as one would mathematically assume, the real and / or complex ones. Accordingly, the ever further subdivision and the ever ongoing discovery of smaller particles has set a limit by quantum theory, the elemental mass. A photon or a quantum have the elementary mass, it doesn't get any smaller in our universe. All particles are made up of quanta, especially the quarks as far as they are not quanta themselves.
Division by Zero
The Division by Zero that I have defined affects the structure of matter. From this one could deduce the mass and momentum of a photon. The new numbers, which are around zero in the epsilon environment, also suggest that the quanta are also built up from smaller ones, quasi-spiritually (or virtually as particle physics calls it). These particles have a mass greater than 0 but less than any real number before the redefinition. A quantum would then be made up of an infinite number of virtual particles.
The electron and the proton
The electron has mass, a mass greater than the elementary mass. Accordingly, it consists of several quanta or photons (I use these terms synonymously, although the photon is ultimately only a quantum of light). Ultimately, the proton is also only made up of quanta.
Ultimately, everything consists of quanta if you get to the bottom of it. We humans also consist of quanta, the deeper you go. First come the molecules, then come the atoms, then come protons, neutrons and electrons and then quanta. From this also follows the equivalence of space and time. Since the quanta move at the speed of light in any case, this speed must be maintained when merging. Space and time are preserved so that the quotient always remains constant in the structure of matter, so the speed always remains constant c.
Forces of attraction and particles
In collaboration with a friend, who also appeared frequently as a commentator, I developed a very simple explanation for the cohesion of matter on Facebook. He got me on it by posting a paper on quantum chromodynamics. Ultimately, one can say that molecules are held together by the valence electrons. Atoms, in turn, are held together by gluons, which for a long time are assumed to be nothing other than photons. This can now be confirmed, as an electron can be split off from the atom by photon bombardment. It is probably even possible to split off all electrons through intense bombardment, so that atomic nuclei can be produced very easily. The atom itself consists of neutrons and protons. Neutrons can be split by neutrino bombardment, so that the neutrino is the element that holds the neutron together. The proton in turn consists of quarks. Now, as the paper emerged, one can release neutrinos here by bombarding them with gluons. So here the cohesive element is again a gluon. This gluon here is smaller than photons and if it is not a very small neutrino itself, smaller than a neutrino.
Ultimately, the electron is then also a gluon, for molecules. And the photon is indeed a gluon for the atom. That obeys the principle of the simplest explanation.